PROJECT ON GLOBAL WARMING PDF

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Because of the treacherous effects of global warming, some solutions must be 15+ million members; + million publications; k+ research projects. blame developing countries for global warming . the West to check pollution and global warming could be The California based International Project for. The gasresponsible for What Is Global Warming?Global warming is when the earth heats up (the temperature Global Warming Project.


Project On Global Warming Pdf

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Introduction. Global warming is in the news. While scientists agree that temperatures are rising, they disagree as to the causes and the rate of change. Signs of global warming in the United States, region by region iv. Executive . global warming impacts described in Scientists project that sea level will. worst effects of global warming and avoid the need for . Forest Climate Project reduced the city's air pollutants by more than 6, tons in.

Polar bearbiologist Ian Stirling has found a similar pattern in Hudson Bay. He fears that if seaice disappears, the polar bears will as well. Global Warming Solutions: The evidence that humans are causing global warming is strong, but the question of whatto do about it remains controversial.

Economics, sociology, and politics are all importantfactors in planning for the future. Even if we stopped emitting greenhouse gases GHGs today, the Earth would still warmby another degree Fahrenheit or so. But what we do from today forward makes a bigdifference.

Depending on our choices, scientists predict that the Earth could eventuallywarm by as little as 2. A commonly cited goal is to stabilize GHG concentrations around parts permillion ppm , or about twice pre-industrial levels. This is the point at which manybelieve the most damaging impacts of climate change can be avoided.

Is this possible? Many people and governments are already working hard to cut greenhouse gases, andeveryone can help. They suggest 7 wedges that could eachreduce emissions, and all of them together could hold emissions at approximately currentlevels for the next 50 years, putting us on a potential path to stabilize around ppm.

There are many possible wedges, including improvements to energy efficiency andvehicle fuel economy so less energy has to be produced , and increases in wind and solarpower, hydrogen produced from renewable sources, biofuels produced from crops ,natural gas, and nuclear power. Some of these technologies have drawbacks, and different communities will makedifferent decisions about how to power their lives, but the good news is that there are avariety of options to put us on a path toward a stable climate.

Are there any ways to prevent global warming? The main cause of global warming is the increased emission of so called greenhousegases , in particular carbon dioxide.

These greenhouse gases have an average lifetime in the atmosphere of 50 to years. This means that even if we stopped the emission of greenhouse gases completelytomorrow, global warming would still continue.

In other words: It is impossible to stop global warming, it is only possible to mitigateits effects through a drastic reduction of the emission of CO2.

Can nuclear power plants mitigate the effects of global warming? Nuclear energy is used to generate electrical power. Therefore it is only possible toreduce the emission of CO2 if nuclear power plants are used instead of other, CO2emitting technologies. This is in particular the case for electrical generation plants fuelledby coal, oil or gas.

The CO2 emission can indeed be reduced, if electrical power plantsdriven by fossil fuels are being replaced by nuclear power plants. However theapplication of nuclear power unfortunately is highly problematic, therefore the problemof CO2 emissions must not be looked at independently of all other risks and problems. See our text about pros and cons of nuclear power for a summary of the advantages anddisadvantages. How much can nuclear energy reduce the main cause of global warming?

The International Energy Agency IEA records the energy consumption world-wide andproduces a forecast for the next 25 years. In their last energy outlook published inautumn , IEA predicts a strong increase of the carbon dioxide emissions by the year as a consequence of the increasing demand for energy world-wide. Additionally, IEA investigated to which extent the above mentioned emissions of CO2could be prevented if politics applied rigorous measures. One of many measuresinvestigated was massive facilitations and incentives for building additional nuclearpower plants.

This result is even more remarkable facing the fact that IEA is known for havingno reservations whatsoever against nuclear energy. The chart below shows the effects of each proposed measure to reduce the main cause ofglobal warming, the emission of carbon dioxide: Proportional effect of measures to mitigate the main cause of global warming, the emission of CO2 by the year Data source: This result is surprising, in particular if you think about how nuclear power is praised as solution to global warming by politicians like George W.

Bush and Tony Blair.

It seems like they would again head into the wrong direction. Here thefocus is clearly on the wrong subject! Why is the focus on nuclear energy instead of energy efficiency?

Unfortunately, there is no lobby for energy efficiency, except perhaps someenvironmental organisations. The nuclear industry however, does have quite a stronglobby world-wide. If a politician asks for a higher efficiency of cars, he or she getsopposed immediately by the automobile industry keyword work places. If the samepolitician suggests building nuclear power plants, he or she can even hope for somemoney for the next election campaign. Why use nuclear power at all? If the focus is put only to avoid the emission of CO2 and if all other side effects areneglected, then nuclear energy can indeed contribute to the solution.

However theproblem of climate change should be solved and discussed in a much wider context: It isimportant to limit our consumption of resources to such an amount which does not curtailfuture generations nor other beings on Earth.

We finally must learn to live a sustainableliving. In this context, nuclear power plants are no solution at all. On the contrary, it would meanto shift from one problem CO2 emission to another and not less severe problem nuclear waste, risk of nuclear catastrophes, limited resource uranium, nuclearproliferation. Nuclear energy could contribute only little to reduce the cause of global warming.

Global Warming 101

Moreover, it can only be a serious option if you shut the eyes to the many cons of nuclearpower. Our energy consumption has increased year by year. Politics and industry made sure thatthe demand of energy was always fulfilled. Supply followed demand. Sustainability wasrarely looked at.

Greenhouse effect: These gases let in light but keep heat from escaping, like the glasswalls of a greenhouse. The more greenhouse gases are in the atmosphere,the more heat gets trapped. Scientists have known about the greenhouse effect since , when Joseph Fouriercalculated that the Earth would be much colder if it had no atmosphere. In , the Swedish chemist SvanteArrhenius discovered that humans could enhance the greenhouse effect by making carbondioxide, a greenhouse gas.

He kicked off years of climate research that has given us asophisticated understanding of global warming. Global averagetemperatures have stayed fairly constant over that time as well, until recently. Throughthe burning of fossil fuels and other GHG emissions, humans are enhancing thegreenhouse effect and warming Earth. As a result, the climate changes differently in different areas.

As a result, ice ages have come and gone. However, for thousands of years now, emissions of GHGs to the atmosphere have beenbalanced out by GHGs that are naturally absorbed. As a result, GHG concentrations andtemperature have been fairly stable. This stability has allowed human civilization todevelop within a consistent climate.

Occasionally, other factors briefly influence global temperatures.

But these have nolasting effect beyond a few years. Now, humans have increased the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere by morethan a third since the industrial revolution. Changes this large have historically takenthousands of years, but are now happening over the course of decades.

Why is this a concern? The rapid rise in greenhouse gases is a problem because it is changing the climate fasterthan some living things may be able to adapt. Also, a new and more unpredictableclimate poses unique challenges to all life. The difference between average global temperaturestoday and during those ice ages is only about 5 degrees Celsius 9 degrees Fahrenheit ,and these swings happen slowly, over hundreds of thousands of years.

The extra water could potentiallyraise sea levels significantly. As the mercury rises, the climate can change in unexpected ways. In addition to sealevels rising, weather can become more extreme. This means more intense major storms,more rain followed by longer and drier droughts a challenge for growing crops , changesin the ranges in which plants and animals can live, and loss of water supplies that havehistorically come from glaciers.

Scientists are already seeing some of these changes occurring more quickly than they hadexpected. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, eleven of thetwelve hottest years since thermometer readings became available occurred between and The difference between average global temperaturestoday and during those ice ages is only about 5 degrees Celsius 9 degrees Fahrenheit ,and these swings happen slowly, over hundreds of thousands of years. The extra water could potentiallyraise sea levels significantly.

As the mercury rises, the climate can change in unexpected ways. In addition to sealevels rising, weather can become more extreme. This means more intense major storms,more rain followed by longer and drier droughts a challenge for growing crops , changesin the ranges in which plants and animals can live, and loss of water supplies that havehistorically come from glaciers.

Scientists are already seeing some of these changes occurring more quickly than they hadexpected. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, eleven of thetwelve hottest years since thermometer readings became available occurred between and What are greenhouse gasses?

As a result people, animals, and plantswould die because the heat would be too strong. What is global warming doing to the environment? Global warming is affecting many parts of the world.

Global warming makes the searise, and when the sea rises, the water covers many low land islands. This is a bigproblem for many of the plants, animals, and people onislands.

The water covers the plants and causes some of themto die. When they die, the animals lose a source of food, alongwith their habitat.

Although animals have a better ability toadapt to what happens than plants do, they may diealso. When the plants and animals die, people lose twosources of food, plant food and animal food. They may alsolose their homes. As a result, they would also have to leave the area or die. This wouldbe called a break in the food chain, or a chain reaction, one thing happening that leads toanother and so on. The oceans are affected by global warming in other ways, as well. Many things that arehappening to the ocean are linked to global warming.

One thing that is happening iswarm water, caused from global warming, is harming and killing algae in the ocean. Algae is a producer that you can see floating on the top of the water. A producer is something that makes food for other animals through photosynthesis, likegrass.

This floating green algae is food to many consumers in the ocean. A consumeris something that eats the producers. One kind of a consumer is small fish. There aremany others like crabs, some whales, and many other animals.

Fewer algae is a problembecause there is less food for us and many animals in the sea. Global warming is doing many things to people as well as animals and plants. It iskilling algae, but it is also destroying many huge forests. The pollution that causes globalwarming is linked to acid rain.

Acid rain gradually destroys almost everything ittouches. Global warming is also causing many more fires that wipe out wholeforests. This happens because global warming can make the earth very hot. In forests,some plants and trees leaves can be so dry that they catch on fire.

What causes global warming? Many things cause global warming. One thing that causes global warming is electricalpollution. Electricity causes pollution in many ways, some worse than others.

In mostcases, fossil fuels are burned to create electricity. Fossil fuels are made of dead plantsand animals. Some examples of fossil fuels are oil and petroleum. Many pollutants chemicals that pollute the air, water, and land are sent into the air when fossil fuels areburned.

Some of these chemicals are called greenhouse gasses. We use these sources of energy much more than the sources that give off lesspollution. Petroleum, one of the sources of energy, is used a lot.

It is used fortransportation, making electricity, and making many other things. Some other examples of using energy and polluting the air are: Turning on a light Watching T. Listening to a stereo Washing or drying clothes Using a hair dryer Riding in a car Heating a meal in the microwave Using an air conditioner Playing a video game Using a dish washerWhen you do these things, you are causing more greenhouse gasses to be sent into theair.

Greenhouse gasses are sent into the air because creating the electricity you use to dothese things causes pollution. You even have to add in how many other people do these things!

That turnsout to be a lot of pollutants going into the air a day because of people like us usingelectricity. The least amount of electricity you use, the better. When we throw our garbage away, the garbage goes to landfills.

Landfills are those big hills that you go by on an expressway that stink. They are full of garbage. The garbage is then sometimes burned. This sends an enormous amount of greenhouse gasses into the air and makes global warming worse. Another thing that makes global warming worse is when people cutdown trees. Trees and other plants collect carbon dioxide CO2 , which is a greenhousegas.

Carbon dioxide is the air that our body lets out when we breathe. Plants collect the CO2 that we breathe out, and they give backoxygen that we breathe in. With less trees and other plants, such as algae, there is less airfor us, and more greenhouse gases are sent into the air.

This means that it is veryimportant to protect our trees to stop the greenhouse effect, and also so we can breatheand live. This gas, CO2, collects light and heat radiant energy , produced by the sun, and thismakes the earth warmer. The heat and light from the sun is produced in the center of thesun.

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The sun has layers just like the earth. This layer is called the core. Just like a coreof an apple, it is in the middle. This heat escapes out of this layer to the next layer, the radiative zone. Finally, the heat and light is sent into space.

This iscalled radiant energy heat and light. As a result of this process we get light and heat. The dirty yellow color on outside is the surface. The light and dark yellow colored area is the convection zone.

Global warming

The orange colored area is the radiative zone, and the red colored area is the core. The squiggle lines represent radiant energy. One of the major cause of Global Warming: Industrial PollutionScientists have spent decades figuring out what is causing global warming. The only way to explain the pattern is to include the effect of greenhouse gases GHGs emitted by humans. The IPCC meets every fewyears to review the latest scientific findings and write a report summarizing all that isknown about global warming.

Each report represents a consensus, or agreement, amonghundreds of leading scientists. One of the first things scientists learned is that there are several greenhouse gasesresponsible for warming, and humans emit them in a variety of ways.

Multiple independently produced datasets confirm that between and , the global average land and ocean surface temperature increased by 0. Since , global average land temperatures have increased about twice as fast as global average ocean temperatures.

The Northern Hemisphere not only has much more land, its arrangement around the Arctic Ocean has resulted in the maximum surface area flipping from reflective snow and ice cover to ocean and land surfaces that absorb more sunlight.

While record-breaking years attract considerable public interest, individual years are less significant than the overall trend. Global surface temperature is subject to short-term fluctuations that overlay long-term trends, and can temporarily mask or magnify them. Other changes emanate from so-called external forcings. These forcings are "external" to the climate system, but not necessarily external to Earth.

So a key approach is to use physical models of the climate system to determine unique fingerprints for all potential external forcings. By comparing these fingerprints with the observed pattern and evolution of the climate change, and the observed evolution of the forcings, the causes of the observed changes can be determined.

CO Main articles: Greenhouse gas , Greenhouse effect , and Carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere Greenhouse gases trap heat radiating from Earth to space. For instance, the change from a dark forest to grassland makes the surface lighter, and causes it to reflect more sunlight: an increase in albedo. Humans change the land surface mainly to create more agricultural land. Other processes linked to land use change however have had the opposite effect, so that the net effect remains unclear.

Solid and liquid particles known as aerosols — from volcanoes, plankton and human-made pollutants — reflect incoming sunlight, [73] cooling the climate.Are involved in our climate and climate change instructional development project. Attribution of recent climate change. Remote Sensing Systems.

K; Reisinger, A.

It has been estimated that, at the beginning of the industrial age in the midth century, carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere were roughly parts per million ppm. Archived PDF from the original on 17 November It isimportant to limit our consumption of resources to such an amount which does not curtailfuture generations nor other beings on Earth. It isimportant to limit our consumption of resources to such an amount which does not curtailfuture generations nor other beings on Earth.

A molecule of methane produces more than 20 times thewarming of a molecule of CO2.

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