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Authentication is based on the Windows account of the user who is running sqlcmd. If the -U option is used with the -E option described later in this article , an error message is generated. If the -U option is followed by more than one argument, an error message is generated and the program exits.
The codepage number is a numeric value that specifies an installed Windows code page. Code-page conversion rules: If no code pages are specified, sqlcmd will use the current code page for both input and output files, unless the input file is a Unicode file, in which case no conversion is required. If the -u option has been specified, the output will always be little-endian Unicode. If no output file is specified, the output code page will be the console code page.
This approach enables the output to be displayed correctly on the console. Multiple input files are assumed to be of the same code page. Unicode and non-Unicode input files can be mixed. Enter chcp at the command prompt to verify the code page of Cmd.
Multiple files may be specified that will be read and processed in order. Do not use any spaces between file names. If one or more files do not exist, sqlcmd will exit.
If the file name is not valid, an error message is generated, and sqlcmd exits. The file output will be corrupted or incorrect.
See the -f switch is also relevant to file formats. This file will be created if it does not exist. A file of the same name from a prior sqlcmd session will be overwritten.
The file specified here is not the stdout file. If a stdout file is specified, this file will not be used. Since multiple client requests can arrive simultaneously, the server methods they call must be thread-safe. A stateless design popular for reasons of scalability intrinsically limits the possibility of interaction, since classes do not persist data between requests. Thread interaction is then limited just to the static fields one may choose to create, for such purposes as caching commonly used data in memory and in providing infrastructure services such as authentication and auditing.
The final approach in implementing thread safety is to use an automatic locking regime. Whenever a method or property on such an object is then called, an object-wide lock is automatically taken for the whole execution of the method or property. Although this reduces the thread-safety burden, it creates problems of its own: deadlocks that would not otherwise occur, impoverished concurrency, and unintended reentrancy. For these reasons, manual locking is generally a better option — at least until a less simplistic automatic locking regime becomes available.
Thread Safety and. A good application of this is the. NET Framework: nearly all of its nonprimitive types are not thread-safe for anything more than read-only access when instantiated, and yet they can be used in multithreaded code if all access to any given object is protected via a lock.
If we had two interrelated lists, we would have to choose a common object upon which to lock we could nominate one of the lists, or better: use an independent field. NET collections is also thread-unsafe in the sense that an exception is thrown if the list is modified during enumeration.
Rather than locking for the duration of enumeration, in this example we first copy the items to an array. Locking around thread-safe objects Sometimes you also need to lock around accessing thread-safe objects.
Add newItem ; Whether or not the list was thread-safe, this statement is certainly not! The whole if statement would have to be wrapped in a lock in order to prevent preemption in between testing for containership and adding the new item. This same lock would then need to be used everywhere we modified that list.
Clear ; to ensure that it did not preempt the former statement. Locking around accessing a collection can cause excessive blocking in highly concurrent environments. To this end, Framework 4. Static members Wrapping access to an object around a custom lock works only if all concurrent threads are aware of — and use — the lock. This may not be the case if the object is widely scoped. The worst case is with static members in a public type.
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For instance, imagine if the static property on the DateTime struct, DateTime. Now, was not thread-safe, and that two concurrent calls could result in garbled output or an exception. The only way to remedy this with external locking might be to lock the type itself — lock typeof DateTime — before calling DateTime. This would work only if all programmers agreed to do this which is unlikely.
Furthermore, locking a type creates problems of its own. For this reason, static members on the DateTime struct have been carefully programmed to be thread-safe. This is a common pattern throughout the.
NET Framework: static members are thread-safe; instance members are not.
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Following this pattern also makes sense when writing types for public consumption, so as not to create impossible thread-safety conundrums. Read-only thread safety Making types thread-safe for concurrent read-only access where possible is advantageous because it means that consumers can avoid excessive locking.
Many of the. NET Framework types follow this principle: collections, for instance, are thread-safe for concurrent readers. However, this would make it thread-unsafe for consumers that expected this to be read-only. In the absence of documentation, it pays to be cautious in assuming whether a method is read-only in nature. A good example is the Random class: when you call Random. Next , its internal implementation requires that it update private seed values.
Therefore, you must either lock around using the Random class, or maintain a separate instance per thread.
Thread Safety in Application Servers Application servers need to be multithreaded to handle simultaneous client requests. Fortunately, such a possibility is rare; a typical server class is either stateless no fields or has an activation model that creates a separate object instance for each client or each request.
Interaction usually arises only through static fields, sometimes used for caching in memory parts of a database to improve performance.
In this example, we choose a practical compromise between simplicity and performance in locking. Our design actually creates a very small potential for inefficiency: if two threads simultaneously called this method with the same previously unretrieved id, the RetrieveUser method would be called twice — and the dictionary would be updated unnecessarily.
Locking once across the whole method would prevent this, but would create a worse inefficiency: the entire cache would be locked up for the duration of calling RetrieveUser, during which time other threads would be blocked in retrieving any user. Although each has a separate implementation, they are both very similar in how they function.
These objects have thread affinity, which means that only the thread that instantiates them can subsequently access their members. Violating this causes either unpredictable behavior, or an exception to be thrown. On the negative side, if you want to call a member on object X created on another thread Y, you must marshal the request to thread Y.
Invoke and BeginInvoke both accept a delegate, which references the method on the target control that you want to run. Invoke works synchronously: the caller blocks until the marshal is complete.
BeginInvoke works asynchronously: the caller returns immediately and the marshaled request is queued up using the same message queue that handles keyboard, mouse, and timer events. After that the judges presented their over all thoughts on each team and the winning teams were announced. The Teams In order of the final presentations. Bus schedules on your mobile devices.
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By giving each such window its own UI thread, the application can be made more responsive. Consider the unlikely event of an exception being thrown within the implementation of Monitor.
If you and interested in the complete experience you really should add this book to your SQL collection. This is the reason I download this book, but this way of explanation is too simple for me. If the -P option is followed by more than one argument, an error message is generated and the program exits.
For these reasons, manual locking is generally a better option — at least until a less simplistic automatic locking regime becomes available.
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